Action Synopsis: Bird Conservation About Actions

Artificially incubate and hand-rear vultures in captivity

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Study locations

Key messages

A study in Peru found that hand-reared Andean condors Vultur gryphus had similar survival to parent-reared birds after release into the wild.


About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A study using Andean condors Vultur gryphus in arid mountains in Peru in 1980-1 to develop release techniques for Californian condors Gymnogyps californianus (Wallace & Temple 1987) found that there was no difference in survival between hand-reared birds released at natural fledging age (approximately six months old) and parent-reared birds released at between one and three years old (three of five hand-reared birds alive 18 months after release vs. four of six parent-reared birds). All mortalities occurred in the first six months after release. Hand-reared birds were fed using puppets heads (to avoid imprinting on human carers, see ‘Use puppets to increase the survival or growth of hand-reared chicks’ for studies on this intervention). Puppet-reared birds were kept in aviaries at the release site for five months before release, parent-reared birds were kept for seven weeks. After release, parent-reared birds integrated into wild populations faster than puppet-reared birds, and their foraging area increased to approximately 1,300 km2 after 170 days, puppet-reared birds took approximately 320 days to increase foraging area to this size. The authors suggest that they were able to manipulate the foraging behaviour (discussed in ‘Provide supplementary food after release’) of puppet-reared birds more effectively than parent-reared birds. This study is also discussed in ‘Release captive-bred individuals’.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Williams, D.R., Child, M.F., Dicks, L.V., Ockendon, N., Pople, R.G., Showler, D.A., Walsh, J.C., zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Bird Conservation. Pages 137-281 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2020. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.


Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

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Bird Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Bird Conservation
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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