Vegetation and soil characteristics as indicators of restoration trajectories in restored mangroves

  • Published source details Salmo S.G., Lovelock C. & Duke N.C. (2013) Vegetation and soil characteristics as indicators of restoration trajectories in restored mangroves. Hydrobiologia, 720, 1-18.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Directly plant trees/shrubs: brackish/saline wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Directly plant trees/shrubs: brackish/saline wetlands

    A replicated, site comparison study in 2008–2010 in 11 mangrove forests in the Philippines (Salmo et al. 2013) found that overall vegetation structure, tree density, biomass, leaf cover and growth rates in planted forests became more similar to mature natural forests over time. For example, a 6-year-old planted mangrove contained 7,780 trees/ha (vs 18-year-old: 1,358 trees/ha; natural: 1,442–1,499 trees/ha). Above-ground tree biomass was only 116 T/ha in the 18-year-old planted mangrove (vs 50-year-old: 132 T/ha; natural: 148–151 T/ha). Mangrove seedlings were only observed in the 50-year-old planted mangrove (20 seedlings/100 m2) and the natural mangrove (12 seedlings/100 m2). The overall vegetation structure in all ages of planted mangrove remained significantly different from natural mangroves (data reported as a graphical analysis). Methods: Between 2008 and 2010, vegetation was surveyed in (a) eight monospecific mangrove forests planted with loop-root mangrove Rhizophora mucronata 6–50 years ago, and (b) three natural, mature mangrove forests. All trees were counted and measured in three 3–5 m radius plots/mangrove. Above-ground biomass was estimated from diameter-mass relationships. Leaf cover was estimated from photographs.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

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