Development of vegetation and aquatic habitat in restored riparian sites of California's North Coast Rangelands

  • Published source details Lennox M.S., Lewis D.J., Jackson R.D., Harper J., Larson S. & Tate K.W. (2011) Development of vegetation and aquatic habitat in restored riparian sites of California's North Coast Rangelands. Restoration Ecology, 19, 225-233.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Other biodiversity: Restore habitat along watercourses

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland
  1. Other biodiversity: Restore habitat along watercourses

    A replicated, before-and-after site comparison in 2011 in 102 riparian forest sites in California, USA, found that riparian vegetation changed over time in restored sites, for 16 of 21 measurements. Implementation options: The following metrics increased over time: species of trees, perennial plants, and shrubs and vines; density of woody vegetation, native trees, and native and exotic shrubs and vines; absolute cover of the total canopy, native tree canopy, ground cover, exposed roots, and litter (data reported as model results). The following metrics decreased over time: absolute cover of total vegetation; relative cover of annual grasses and forbs; species of annual herbaceous plants. The number of exotic tree species and the cover of native and exotic perennial grasses and forbs did not change over time. Methods: A total of 102 riparian sites from three coastal counties (Marin, Mendocino, and Sonoma) were surveyed (restored: 89 sites, 0–39 years after restoration; non-restored: 13 sites). Restoration involved willow Salix planting. Vegetation cover was estimated using a Daubenmire Frame (20 x 50 cm). Canopy density was measured with a spherical densitometer.


Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust