Captive rearing and breeding of Norfolk natterjacks, Bufo calamita

  • Published source details Jones M. (1984) Captive rearing and breeding of Norfolk natterjacks, Bufo calamita. Herpetological Society Bulletin, 10, 43-45.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Captive breeding toads

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Captive breeding toads

    A small, replicated study in 1981–1984 of captive natterjack toads Bufo calamita in Norfolk, UK (Jones 1984) found that two egg strings were produced by nine females. These hatched successfully. The majority of the tadpoles were released back to the wild. In the first year only one of nine wild toadlets survived overwintering in captivity and died shortly after. The following year all 25 wild tadpoles survived to adulthood. In 1981, 12 and in 1982, 25 tadpoles were collected from the wild. Toadlets were housed in a tank with water, a sloping sandy substrate and moss. In the first year toadlets were housed outdoors, after that all tadpoles were kept indoors for at least their first year. Adults were housed in an outdoor enclosure with sandy substrate, a pool, wood and heathland plants.


Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust