Fertility and hatchability of falcon eggs after insemination with frozen peregrine falcon semen

  • Published source details Parks J. & Hardaswick V. (1987) Fertility and hatchability of falcon eggs after insemination with frozen peregrine falcon semen. Journal of Raptor Research, 21, 70-72.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Freeze semen for use in artificial insemination

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Freeze semen for use in artificial insemination

    A small, controlled ex situ study in New York, USA, in 1986 (Parks & Hardaswick 1987) found that four female prairie falcons Falco mexicanus and one American kestrel F. sparverius had significantly lower fertility when inseminated with frozen sperm (defrosted and dialyzed to remove glycerol added before freezing), compared to two prairie falcons and one kestrel inseminated with fresh semen (25% of 28 eggs for frozen vs. 94% of 17 eggs for fresh semen). Only two prairie falcons and the kestrel produced any fertile eggs from frozen semen. The birds inseminated with fresh sperm were a subset of the larger group and were inseminated with semen from a peregrine falcon F. peregrinus and a peregrine-gyrfalcon F. rusticolus hybrid. Frozen semen preparation took approximately 90 minutes after thawing, during which it was kept at 0-4oC. Insemination used 80 µl (frozen) or 20-70 µl (fresh) semen.


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