Competitive and predatory interactions among raptors: an observational and experimental study

  • Published source details Hakkarainen H. & Korpimäki E. (1996) Competitive and predatory interactions among raptors: an observational and experimental study. Ecology, 77, 1134-1142.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Provide artificial nesting sites for owls

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Provide artificial nesting sites for owls

    A replicated and controlled trial in 1989-94 in boreal forests in Central Finland, Finland (Hakkarainen & Korpimäki 1996), found that Tengmalm’s (boreal) owls Aegolius funereus successfully used nest boxes provided. However, of 15 possible breeding attempts in Ural owl Strix uralensis territories, only four were made (27%) and all failed. In contrast, 15 of 20 possible attempts in eagle owl Bubo bubo territories were made (75%) and all but two were successful. The presence of Ural owls was therefore found to significantly reduce both the probability of occupation and the chances of success for the smaller Tengmalm’s owl.


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