The effect of restoration methods on the quality of the restoration and resistance to invasion by exotics

  • Published source details Middleton E.L., Bever J.D. & Schultz P.A. (2010) The effect of restoration methods on the quality of the restoration and resistance to invasion by exotics. Restoration Ecology, 18, 181-187.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Plant grassland plants

Action Link
Grassland Conservation
  1. Plant grassland plants

    A replicated, controlled study in 1998–2004 in agricultural fields in Indiana, USA (Middleton et al. 2010) found that areas planted with seedlings in addition to seeding with grassland species contained more plant species, and more native plant species, than areas that were only seeded. After one to four years, areas that were planted and seeded contained more species (16–19) than those that were only seeded (6–12). The number of native species was also higher in the planted and seeded plots compared to the seeded only plots (data not given). Both treatments were carried out on former arable land using locally collected seed. The planting and seeding treatment was applied to a different 14 x 24 m plot each year from 2001–2004. Seedlings of 11 species were planted. The seeding treatment was applied to a different parcel of land each autumn from 1998–2004. No information was provided about the size of seeded areas, seeding rates or timing. Seeded plots were mown in the first year after planting, and invasive plants were treated with herbicide. Plant species were recorded within twenty-four 2 x 2 m quadrats in each seeded area, and 18 quadrats in each seeded and planted area.

    (Summarised by: Philip Martin)

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