Mangrove, Avicennia marina, establishment and growth under the arid climate of Kuwait

  • Published source details Bhat N.R., Suleiman M.K. & Shahid S.A. (2004) Mangrove, Avicennia marina, establishment and growth under the arid climate of Kuwait. Arid Land Research and Management (formerly Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 1987-2000), 18, 127-139.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Directly plant trees/shrubs: brackish/saline wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Directly plant trees/shrubs: brackish/saline wetlands

    A replicated study in the early 2000s on five coastal mudflats in Kuwait (Bhat et al. 2004) reported 16–81% survival of planted grey mangrove Avicennia marina seedlings after nine months, and that the number of branches/seedling typically increased over time but their height typically did not. Statistical significance was not assessed. On average, surviving seedlings had 1–2 branches three months after planting, then 3–7 branches nine months after planting. When planted, the average height of seedlings was 20–25 cm. After nine months, the average height of surviving seedlings was 19–27 cm in four of five sites (46–47 cm in the other site). The study suggests that survival and growth were affected by physical factors such as soil texture, salinity, elevation and the presence of algae. Methods: Grey mangrove seedlings were planted in five tidal, coastal mudflats (1,500–2,000 seedlings/site, 1 m apart). The seedlings had been reared in a nursery from propagules collected in the United Arab Emirates and acclimatized to local high salinities before planting. Surviving seedlings were recorded and measured for up to nine months after planting.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust