Freshwater wetland restoration of an abandoned sand mine: seed bank recruitment dynamics and plant colonization

  • Published source details Vivian-Smith G. & Handel S.N. (1996) Freshwater wetland restoration of an abandoned sand mine: seed bank recruitment dynamics and plant colonization. Wetlands, 16, 185-196.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Restore/create freshwater marshes or swamps (multiple actions)

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Restore/create freshwater marshes or swamps (multiple actions)

    A study in 1992–1993 on a former sand mine in New Jersey, USA (Vivian-Smith & Handel 1996) reported that following multiple restoration interventions the site developed vegetation cover, including some wetland-characteristic species. After 10 months, 82 plant species were recorded in quadrats across the site (area surveyed: 26.75 m2) with 6.3 species/0.25-m2 quadrat. There were at least 20 wetland-characteristic species across the site. The most abundant taxa were panicgrasses Panicum spp. (33 plants/m2), tapertip rush Juncus acuminatus (15 plants/m2) and toad rush Juncus bufonius (8 plants/m2). The only common woody taxa were willows Salix spp. (two species; 0.3–0.4 plants/m2). Methods: In October–November 1992, a former sand mine (last mined in the early 1990s) was subjected to multiple interventions: reprofiling, adding soil from another wetland (5–10 cm layer over the site), planting herbs and woody plants (species not reported), sowing a grass cover crop (including a panicgrass species), mulching with straw and adding lime. The aim was to restore a shrubby freshwater wetland. Vegetation was surveyed in August 1993, in 107 quadrats (each 0.25 m2) spread across the site.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

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