Wetland habitat development and long-term monitoring at Windmill Point, Virginia

  • Published source details Landin M.C., Clairain E.J. & Newling C.J. (1989) Wetland habitat development and long-term monitoring at Windmill Point, Virginia. Wetlands, 9, 13-25.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Deposit soil/sediment to form physical structure of freshwater marshes

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Deposit soil/sediment to form physical structure of freshwater marshes

    A site comparison study in 1979–1985 alongside a river in Virginia, USA (Landin et al. 1989) reported that a freshwater marsh created by depositing dredged sediment developed vegetation of similar height and density to three natural marshes within four years, but that vegetation cover remained lower than natural marshes for 10 years. Statistical significance was not assessed. Four years after wetland creation, vegetation was 112 cm tall (vs natural wetlands: 99–112 cm) and there were 212 plant stems/m2 (vs natural: 183–380 stems/m2). However, in the created marsh, vegetation cover was only 47% (vs natural: 65–91%). Data were also reported 10 years after marsh creation. Height and density were still within the range of natural marshes, and cover was still lower in the created marsh than natural marshes (see original paper for data). Methods: In 1975, dredged sediment was deposited behind a sand embankment in the James River channel. The dike was breached after depositing the sediment to allow tidal influx. Vegetation was surveyed along permanent transects in the created marsh and three adjacent natural marshes in 1979, 1982 and 1985.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

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