Study

Woody plant restoration and natural regeneration in wet meadow at Coomonderry Swamp on the south coast of New South Wales

  • Published source details de J.N.H. (2000) Woody plant restoration and natural regeneration in wet meadow at Coomonderry Swamp on the south coast of New South Wales. Marine and Freshwater Research, 51, 81.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Introduce tree/shrub seeds or propagules: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Remove vegetation that could compete with planted trees/shrubs: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Directly plant trees/shrubs: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Introduce tree/shrub seeds or propagules: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated study in 1995 in a wet meadow in New South Wales, Australia (de Jong 2000) reported 0–18% germination of sown tree/shrub seeds after two months, depending on the species and whether vegetation was cleared before sowing, but 0% survival after eight months. In plots that had been cleared of vegetation before sowing, all five sown species germinated. The number of seedlings present after two months was 1–18% of the number of seeds sown. In plots that had not been cleared of vegetation, only two of five species germinated. For these species, the number of seedlings present after two months was ≤1% of the number of seeds sown. After eight months, after prolonged saturation or flooding, no seedlings were present in any plot. Methods: In January–February 1995, seeds of five tree/shrub species present in local wetlands were sown on to a wet meadow, with the aim of restoring a swamp. For each species, three hundred 25 x 25 cm plots were sown with approximately 50 seeds. Of the 300 plots, 200 were cleared of vegetation before sowing. Half of the plots/species were higher (and drier) than the others. Seedlings of the planted species were counted in every plot after two and eight months.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

  2. Remove vegetation that could compete with planted trees/shrubs: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in 1994–1995 in a wet meadow in New South Wales, Australia (de Jong 2000) found that clearing vegetation increased germination of sown tree/shrub seeds, but typically had no clear or significant effect on the survival or size of planted seedlings. Statistical significance of survival results was not assessed. Two months after sowing seeds, there were more seedlings in cleared than uncleared plots in 10 of 10 cases (cleared: 1–9 seedlings/plot; uncleared: <1 seedling/plot). Nine months after planting, seedlings in cleared and uncleared plots had similar survival rates in 20 of 20 comparisons (cleared: 96–100%; uncleared: 96–100%), statistically similar heights in 20 of 20 comparisons (cleared: 69–127 cm; uncleared: 68–121 cm), and statistically similar stem diameters in 17 of 20 comparisons (for which cleared: 7–14 mm; uncleared: 7–16 mm). Bi-monthly weeding after initial clearance had no clear effect on seedling survival, and no significant effect on seedling size in 19 of 20 comparisons (see original paper for data). Methods: In spring/summer 1994/1995, five tree and shrub species were planted into a wet meadow, with the aim of restoring a swamp. For each species, 300 plots (25 x 25 cm) were sown with seeds (50 seeds/plot) and 300 plots were sown with nursery-reared seedlings (1 seedling/plot). A random 400 plots/species were cleared of vegetation before planting (details of clearing not reported). Of these, a random 200 plots were also weeded every two months. Seedlings in sown plots were counted after two months. Seedlings in planted plots were counted and measured after nine months.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

  3. Directly plant trees/shrubs: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated study in 1994–1995 in a wet meadow in New South Wales, Australia (de Jong 2000) reported 95–100% survival of planted tree/shrub seedlings after nine months, but 0–90% survival after 50 months. After nine months, >95% of planted seedlings were still alive: for all five sown species, in both drier and wetter plots, and whether or not vegetation was cleared before planting. After 50 months, and following extremes of both flooding and drought, survival was more variable. Some seedlings survived in 9 of 10 cases, with a survival rate of 10–90%. In the other case, the survival rate was 0% for prickly tea tree Leptospermum juniperinum seedlings in lower (wetter) plots. Methods: In October–December 1994, five tree/shrub species present in local wetlands were planted into a wet meadow, with the aim of restoring a swamp. Three hundred nursery-reared seedlings of each species were planted, at least 1 m apart. Of the 300 seedlings/species, 150 were planted in a drier area (vs 150 in a wetter area) and 200 were planted in plots cleared of vegetation (vs 100 in intact vegetation). Survival was monitored after nine months (all seedlings) and 50 months (10 seedlings/species/water level).

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

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