Shrubland restoration following woody alien invasion and mining: effects of topsoil depth, seed source, and fertilizer addition

  • Published source details Holmes P.M. (2001) Shrubland restoration following woody alien invasion and mining: effects of topsoil depth, seed source, and fertilizer addition. Restoration Ecology, 9, 71-84.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Sow seeds

Action Link
Shrubland and Heathland Conservation
  1. Sow seeds

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1995–1998 in a former maritime pine Pinus pinaster plantation in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa (Holmes 2001) found that in five of nine cases sowing seeds of shrubland species increased plant cover. After three years and in five of nine cases, plant cover in areas where seeds of shrubland species were sown was higher (17–95% cover) than areas where seeds were not sown (4–79%). Seeds were sown in seventy-two 4 m x 4 m plots and in 33 plots no seeds were sown. After sowing seeds mulch was spread over plots to stop seeds from being blown away. In each plot four 1 m x 1 m quadrats were established and vegetation cover assessed five times in 1995–1998.

    (Summarised by: Phil Martin)

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