Model programs for reproduction and management: ex situ and in situ conservation of toads of the family Bufonidae

  • Published source details Johnson R.R. (1994) Model programs for reproduction and management: ex situ and in situ conservation of toads of the family Bufonidae. Pages 243-254 in: J.T. Collins, K. Adler & J.B. Murphy (eds.) Captive Management and Conservation of Amphibians and Reptiles, Contributions to Herpetology Vol. 11, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Ithaca, New York.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Translocate toads

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Release captive-bred toads

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Captive breeding toads

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Translocate toads

    A study in 1991–1992 in Wyoming, USA (Johnson 1994) found that a translocated pair of Wyoming toads Bufo baxteri bred in the first year. In 1992, tadpoles were produced from eggs laid within the breeding enclosure in the release pond. Toads did not breed in the original pond, the only remaining wild population. Female and juvenile toads were captured from the wild and overwintered in captivity for four months. One of the females and a wild-captured male were released into a breeding enclosure within the release pond.


  2. Release captive-bred toads

    A study in western Guánica, Puerto Rico (Johnson 1994) reported that a small number of captive-bred Puerto Rican crested toads Peltophryne lemur survived after release. Two of a group of 640 released were observed in 1989 and others sighted in 1992 and 1993. Predation by mongooses had a significant effect on the survival of radio-tracked released adults. Three thousand newly metamorphosed toads were released in 1988. A further 12 captive-bred adults were released with radio-transmitters.


  3. Captive breeding toads

    A review in 1994 of captive breeding programmes for the Puerto Rican crested toad Peltophryne lemur (Johnson 1994) reported that the species had bred at three of the 14 zoos and institutions with captive populations.


Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 19

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust