A qualitative study of fish-amphibian interactions in 3 Missouri ponds

  • Published source details Sexton 0.J. & Phillips C. (1986) A qualitative study of fish-amphibian interactions in 3 Missouri ponds. Transactions of the Missouri Academy of Science, 20, 25-35.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Translocate salamanders (including newts)

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Translocate wood frogs

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Create ponds for amphibians

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Translocate salamanders (including newts)

    A before-and-after study in 1965–1986 of two created ponds in Missouri, USA (Sexton & Phillips 1986) found that translocating eggs and larvae established breeding populations of spotted salamanders Ambystoma maculatum and ringed salamanders Ambystoma annulatum.  A breeding population of spotted salamanders was established in one pond.  At the other pond, adult ringed salamanders Ambystoma annulatum were recorded in 1984 and egg masses in 1986.  In 1965 and 1968, eggs and larvae of spotted salamanders were translocated to a newly constructed pond.  In 1977, eggs of the ringed salamander were translocated to another created pond.  Ponds were monitored until 1986.


  2. Translocate wood frogs

    A before-and-after study in 1965–1986 of two created ponds in Missouri, USA (Sexton & Phillips 1986) found that translocated wood frog Rana sylvatica eggs established a breeding population in one of two created ponds. At the second pond wood frogs did not establish. In 1980, wood frog eggs were translocated to two newly constructed ponds. Ponds were monitored until 1986.


  3. Create ponds for amphibians

    A small, replicated before-and-after study in 1965–1986 of three created ponds in Missouri, USA (Sexton & Phillips 1986) found that stable amphibian populations were established in all ponds. Between 10 and 12 amphibian species colonized the ponds, some within 11 days of construction. However, fish invaded two of the ponds after nine and 16 years. Only two of 11 amphibian species remained after the invasion of six fish species in one pond. In the other pond, amphibian species did not appear to be significantly affected during the year after invasion by two fish species. The three ponds were created in 1965–70. Eggs of spotted salamanders Ambystoma maculatum, wood frogs Rana sylvatica and ringed salamander Ambystoma annulatum were translocated to two of the ponds in 1965–1980. Ponds were monitored using drift-fencing with pitfall traps until 1986.



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