Study

The potential for golf courses to support restoration of biodiversity for biobanking offsets

  • Published source details Burgin S. & Wotherspoon D. (2009) The potential for golf courses to support restoration of biodiversity for biobanking offsets. Urban Ecosystems, 12, 145-155.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Create or restore savannas

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Change mowing regime

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Retain buffer zones around core habitat

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Create refuges

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Replant vegetation

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Clear vegetation

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Create or restore savannas

    A before-and-after study in 1996–2004 of a golf course with degraded savanna-like habitat of open woodland and grassland in Sydney, Australia (Burgin & Wotherspoon 2009) found that restoration that included leaving unmown buffers around ponds, removing non-native weeds, planting native vegetation and adding woody debris resulted in an increase in reptile species over eight years. Reptiles increased from three to eight species in the first two years and to nine species after five years, then remained stable for the following three years. A total of 37 reptile species were predicted in the area of which eight were present following restoration (in 2004), compared to three prior to restoration (in 1996). The golf course was developed in 1993 and restoration undertaken in 1997–2001. The mowing regime was changed to develop rough grassland and a narrow band of herb vegetation was retained around ponds as a buffer zone; native shrubs and trees were planted; non-native weeds were removed and coarse woody debris was reintroduced onto the woodland floor. Reptile surveys were carried out by visual searches (4 hrs long) and checking 12 artificial shelters once a season in 1996–2004.

    (Summarised by: Katie Sainsbury)

  2. Change mowing regime

    A before-and-after study in 1996–2004 of a golf course with degraded woodland and grassland in Sydney, Australia (Burgin & Wotherspoon 2009) found that restoration that included changing the mowing regime resulted in an increase in frog species over two years. Frogs increased from seven to 10 species in the first year and then remained stable for the following six years. A total of 18 species of frogs were predicted in the area of which 56% were present following restoration. The golf course was developed in 1993 and restoration undertaken in 1997–2001. The mowing regime was changed to maintain taller areas of rough grass. In addition, during mowing a narrow band of herb vegetation was retained around ponds as a buffer zone for amphibians. Endemic shrubs and trees were planted, non-native weeds were removed and coarse woody debris was reintroduced onto the woodland floor. Pond perimeters were walked to record frog calls in 1996–2004.

     

  3. Retain buffer zones around core habitat

    A before-and-after study in 1997–2004 of a golf course with degraded woodland and grassland in Sydney, Australia (Burgin & Wotherspoon 2009) found that restoration that included leaving unmown buffers around ponds increased frog species over two years. Frogs increased from seven to 10 species in the first year and then remained stable for the following six years. A total of 18 species of frogs were predicted in the area and so 56% were present following restoration. The golf course was developed in 1993 and restoration undertaken in 1997–2001. The mowing regime was changed to develop grasslands and a narrow band of herb vegetation retained around ponds as a buffer zone. In addition, native shrubs and trees were planted, non-native weeds were removed and coarse woody debris was reintroduced onto the woodland floor. Pond perimeters were walked to record frog calls in 1996–2004.

     

  4. Create refuges

    A before-and-after study in 1997–2004 of a golf course with degraded woodland and grassland in Sydney, Australia (Burgin & Wotherspoon 2009) found that restoration that included reintroducing coarse woody debris to the woodland floor increased frog species over two years. Frogs increased from seven to 10 species in the first year and then remained stable for the following six years. A total of 18 species of frogs were predicted in the area and so 56% were present following restoration. The golf course was developed in 1993 and restoration was undertaken in 1997–2001. Coarse woody debris was reintroduced onto the woodland floor, endemic shrubs and trees were planted and non-native weeds were removed. The mowing regime was changed to develop grasslands and a narrow band of herb vegetation retained around ponds as a buffer zone. Pond perimeters were walked to record frog calls in 1996–2004.

     

  5. Replant vegetation

    A before-and-after study in 1997–2004 of a golf course with degraded woodland and grassland in Sydney, Australia (Burgin & Wotherspoon 2009) found that restoration that included planting increased frog species over two years. Frogs increased from seven to 10 species in the first year and then remained stable for the following six years. A total of 18 species of frogs were predicted in the area and so 56% were present following restoration. The golf course was developed in 1993 and restoration undertaken in 1997–2001. Endemic shrubs and trees were planted, non-native weeds were removed and coarse woody debris was reintroduced onto the woodland floor. The mowing regime was changed to develop grasslands and a narrow band of herb vegetation retained around ponds as a buffer zone. Pond perimeters were walked to record frog calls in 1996–2004.

     

  6. Clear vegetation

    A before-and-after study in 1997–2004 of a golf course with degraded woodland and grassland in Sydney, Australia (Burgin & Wotherspoon 2009) found that restoration that included removing non-native weeds resulted in an increase in frog species over two years. Frogs increased from seven to 10 species in the first year and then remained stable for the following six years. A total of 18 species of frogs were predicted in the area and so 56% were present following restoration. The golf course was developed in 1993 and restoration undertaken in 1997–2001. Non-native weeds were removed, endemic shrubs and trees were planted and coarse woody debris was reintroduced to the woodland floor. The mowing regime was changed to develop grasslands and a narrow band of herb vegetation retained around ponds as a buffer zone. Pond perimeters were walked to record frog calls in 1996–2004.

     

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