In situ biofiltration: a means to limit the dispersal of effluents from marine finfish cage aquaculture

  • Published source details Angel D.L., Eden N., Breitstein S., Yurman A., Katz T. & Spanier E. (2002) In situ biofiltration: a means to limit the dispersal of effluents from marine finfish cage aquaculture. Hydrobiologia, 469, 1- 10.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Construct artificial reefs

Action Link
Sustainable Aquaculture
  1. Construct artificial reefs

    A controlled study in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea between 1999 and 2000 (Angel et al., 2002) found similar levels of sediment carbon between artificial reef sites below and to the west of cages containing farmed gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata. Three months after deployment of the reef, percentage carbon in all sediment tested was similar, inclusive of a four control sites. Below the farm, there was 3.95% of carbon, compared to the control sites (4.06%). West of the farm, there was 2.25% of carbon, compared to the control sites (2.34%). Two triangular-shaped artificial reefs, made of porous polyethylene, with a total volume of 8.2 m3 were deployed at 20m depth: one below a commercial fish farm and the other 500m west of this farm. Scuba divers sampled sediments every three months for 12 months. Four sampling stations were established 3m from the edge of reefs on either side to act as control sites. Carbon content of sediment samples was measured.


Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust