Influence of refuge habitats and cover crops on seasonal activity-density of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in field crops

  • Published source details Carmona D.M. & Landis D.A. (1999) Influence of refuge habitats and cover crops on seasonal activity-density of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in field crops. Environmental Entomology, 28, 1145-1153.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Create beetle banks

Action Link
Natural Pest Control
  1. Create beetle banks

    A replicated, randomised, controlled study in 1996-1997 in one field at the Michigan State University Entomology Farm, Michigan, USA (Carmona & Landis 1999) found that raised refuge strips did not affect the activity density of ground beetles (Carabidae) in surrounding cropped subplots in both years (numbers not provided). However raised refuge strips had seasonally higher ground beetle activity densities from May-August 1996 (average 4-16 beetles/trap) and May, July and August 1997 (2-6 beetles/trap) than surrounding crops (0.5-8 beetles/trap in 1996; 1-5 in 1997). There were eight 30 x 30 m plots, each divided into two 30 x 15 m subplots. Four pairs of subplots were separated by a 3.3 m-wide, 0.10 m-high refuge strip and four pairs had no refuge strip. The field was in a three-year crop rotation of soybean Glycine max, oats Avena sativa and maize Zea mays. The central 0.3 m section of refuge strips was planted with three perennial flowering plant species and a grass-legume seed mix was sown on either side of the flowering plants. Ground beetles were sampled in May-October in three pitfall traps/refuge strip or control area and six traps/subplot in the surrounding crop area.


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