Choice of nest boxes by common goldeneyes in Ontario

  • Published source details Lumsden H., Page R. & Gauthier M. (1980) Choice of nest boxes by common goldeneyes in Ontario. The Wilson Bulletin, 92, 497-505.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Provide artificial nesting sites for wildfowl

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Provide artificial nesting sites for wildfowl

    A series of replicated studies at river and lake sites in northern Ontario, Canada in 1974-9 (Lumsden et al. 1980), found that cavity-nesting ducks (mainly common goldeneyes Bucephala clangula) preferentially used nest boxes with large (13 x 10 cm) entrance holes high (33 cm) above the floor of nest boxes with dark interiors. Nest boxes with large entrance holes were used more than those with medium (10.5 × 8 cm) holes; boxes with small (7.5 × 6 cm) holes were not used by goldeneyes or hooded mergansers Mergus cucullatus (318 sets of boxes tested). Boxes with entrance holes 18 or 25.5 cm above the base of the box were not used by goldeneyes (201 sets) and boxes with dark-stained interiors were used more than those with unstained interiors (39 breeding attempts vs. 13 attempts, 73-5 sets for each of six years). Differences between tree species were minimal and orientation had no impact.


Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust