Over-exploitation and illegal trade of reptiles in Indonesia

  • Published source details Nijman V., Shepherd C.R., Mumpuni . & Sanders K.L. (2012) Over-exploitation and illegal trade of reptiles in Indonesia. The Herpetological Journal, 22, 83-89.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Regulate wildlife harvesting

Action Link
Reptile Conservation
  1. Regulate wildlife harvesting

    A study in 1999 and 2005–2006 in Indonesia (Nijman et al. 2012) reported that regulating reptile harvests through quotas did not limit the number of tokay geckos Gekko gecko, Javan filesnakes Acrochordus javanicus and Asiatic softshell turtles Amyda cartilaginea that were harvested and exported. Trade in tokay geckos was estimated at 1.2 million individuals/year, compared to an annual quota of 50,000; trade in Javan filesnakes was estimated at 330,000 individuals/year, compared to a quota of 200,000; and trade in Asiatic softshell turtles was estimated at 200,000–450,000 in 1998 and 1999 in three cities, compared to a national quota of 10,000. The Indonesian authorities set annual quotas for the harvest and export of reptile species that were not legally protected, and determined quota numbers through consultation with various stakeholders, including reptile traders. Data on trade were collected from the Indonesian authorities (CITES Management Authority), as well as through interviews with members of reptile and amphibian trade associations and other stakeholders in the reptile trade. In 1999, trade data for Asiatic softshell turtles was collected from reptile traders in three cities in Sumatra. In 2005–2006, trade data for tokay geckos was collected at four locations in Java, and Javan filesnake data was collected in five cities and involved all major exporters in the country.

    (Summarised by: William Morgan)

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