Rodent, snake and raptor use of restored native perennial grasslands is lower than use of unrestored exotic annual grasslands

  • Published source details Wolf K.M., Whalen M.A., Bourbour R.P. & Baldwin R.A. (2018) Rodent, snake and raptor use of restored native perennial grasslands is lower than use of unrestored exotic annual grasslands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 55, 1133-1144.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Create or restore grasslands

Action Link
Reptile Conservation
  1. Create or restore grasslands

    A replicated, paired sites, controlled study in 2014–2015 in four grasslands in California, USA (Wolf et al. 2018) found that restored grasslands had reduced snake abundance 13–24 years after restoration took place. After 13–24 years, restored grassland had 10 times lower snake abundance (0.09 snakes/plot) than unrestored grassland (0.92 snakes/plot). The authors reported that snake abundance was correlated with abundance of non-native house mice Mus musculus. In 1992 and 2003, four grasslands were partially restored with native perennial plants. In 2014–2015, two paired survey blocks (each 150 x 150 m) were set up in each grassland (8 total blocks): restored grassland and exotic annual grassland. Snake monitoring was carried out in April, July, and November 2014 and February–March 2015. Snakes were surveyed using three pairs of coverboards (metal and plywood) spaced at 75 m intervals along 150 m transects (4 transects/block, 192 total coverboards). Coverboards were surveyed in the mornings up to eight times/block and season (3,216 total coverboard surveys).

    (Summarised by: Katie Sainsbury)

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