Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Legally protect habitat Ten studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of legally protecting habitat. Six studies were in the UK and one was in each of Australia, Singapore and Ireland and the USA. Three of the studies used data from the same national monitoring scheme across different years. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (3 studies): One replicated, site comparison study in Singapore found that protected primary or secondary forest reserves had a higher species richness of butterflies than unprotected forest fragments. One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Ireland reported that raised bogs protected as Special Areas of Conservation (where restoration had sometimes taken place) had a similar species richness of moths to unprotected bogs. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that, in the first three years after protection as Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), woodland, grassland and heathland sites lost a similar proportion of 29 threatened butterfly species to unprotected sites. POPULATION RESPONSE (8 STUDIES) Abundance (7 studies): Three of five site comparison studies (including four replicated studies and one before-and-after study) in the UK and Ireland found that sites protected as National Nature Reserves or Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) (in one case also managed by coppicing), or surrounded by SSSIs, had a higher abundance of heath fritillary, all butterflies and 30/57 species of butterfly than unprotected sites. However, one of these studies only found the result using one of two sets of sites. The other two studies found that grasslands protected as National Nature Reserves or SSSIs and raised bogs protected as Special Areas of Conservation had a similar total abundance of moths, and change in abundance of chalkhill blue butterflies, to unprotected sites. However, one of these studies found mixed results for individual moth species. One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that, at sites with the highest levels of protection, abundances of Karner blue, frosted elfin and Persius duskywing did not change over time, whereas they decreased at sites with lower levels of protection. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that protected grasslands assessed as being in “Favourable” habitat condition had worse population trends for 4/8 butterfly species but better for 1/8 species than grasslands in “Unfavourable” condition. One study in Australia reported that after a grassland was designated as a local reserve, populations of golden sun-moth and pale sun-moth persisted for at least four years. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3831https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3831Mon, 04 Jul 2022 13:36:18 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Retain connectivity between habitat patches Three studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of retaining connectivity between habitat patches. One study was in each of the USA, the Netherlands and Estonia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Estonia found that well connected cleared patches within a woodland had a similar species richness of butterflies to isolated cleared patches. POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the Netherlands found that low quality habitat patches which were well connected were more likely to retain Alcon large blue populations than less well connected patches, but connectivity did not affect occupancy of high quality patches. Behaviour change (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in the USA found that common buckeye were more likely to colonize farther away habitat patches if they were released on corridors of suitable habitat than if released in unsuitable habitat, but there was no difference when released close to habitat patches. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3832https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3832Mon, 04 Jul 2022 14:39:38 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Retain buffer zones around core habitat We found no studies that evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of retaining buffer zones around core habitat. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3833https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3833Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:06:43 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Practise ‘wildlife gardening’ Four studies evaluated the effects of practising wildlife gardening on butterflies and moths. Two were in the UK and one was in each of France and the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, paired, controlled study in the USA found that areas with reduced frequency weeding had a similar species richness of adult butterflies compared to areas with conventional weeding. POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Abundance (3 studies): Two replicated studies (including one paired, controlled study) in the UK and the USA found that increasing the number and age of potted nettle plants in gardens and weeding less frequently did not increase abundance of butterflies, all caterpillars and caterpillars and eggs of four target species. One replicated, site comparison study in France found that gardens where insecticides and herbicides were not used and where there were natural features had a higher abundance of butterflies, but gardens where fungicides and snail pellets were not used had a lower abundance of butterflies. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): One replicated study in the UK reported that caterpillars only occasionally used potted nettle plants in gardens. One site comparison study in the UK found that planted buddleia and marjoram were visited by adult butterflies and moths more frequently than other plant species. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3834https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3834Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:12:24 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Protect or restore brownfield or ex-industrial sites We found no studies that evaluated the effects of protecting or restoring brownfield or ex-industrial sites on butterflies and moths. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3835https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3835Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:24:10 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Protect greenfield sites or undeveloped land in urban areas Two studies evaluated the effects of protecting greenfield sites or undeveloped land in urban areas on butterflies and moths. One study was in Singapore and the other was in Mexico. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (2 studies): Two site comparison studies (including one replicated study) in Singapore and Mexico found that protected native forest and grassland in urban areas had a higher species richness of butterflies than urban parks or non-native Eucalyptus plantations. POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3836https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3836Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:25:46 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Establish “green infrastructure” in urban areas One study evaluated the effects of establishing “green infrastructure in urban areas on butterflies and moths. This study was in Taiwan. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Taiwan found that green roofs had a lower species richness of butterflies than urban parks. POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Taiwan found that green roofs had a lower abundance of butterflies than urban parks, but the abundance was higher on older green roofs with more nectar plant species in a larger area. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3837https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3837Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:32:09 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Plant trees to reduce temperatures in cities We found no studies that evaluated the effects of planting trees to reduce temperatures in cities on butterflies and moths. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3838https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3838Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:35:33 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Apply ecological compensation for developments Two studies evaluated the effects of on butterflies and moths of applying ecological compensation for developments. One was in the USA and the other was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One study in Australia reported that a population of purple copper butterfly caterpillars translocated from a development site to an area of compensatory and retained habitat increased in number over three years. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One site comparison study in the USA reported that an area of lupines transplanted from a development site was used by a similar number of Karner blue butterflies to an area with no transplanted lupines. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3839https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3839Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:40:59 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Require developers to complete Environmental Impact Assessments when submitting planning applications We found no studies that evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of requiring developers to complete Environmental Impact Assessment when submitting planning applications. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3840https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3840Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:41:59 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Alter mowing regimes on greenspaces and road verges Seven studies evaluated the effects of altering mowing regimes on greenspaces and road verges on butterflies and moths. One study was in each of Finland, the Netherlands, Poland, Germany, the UK, Canada and Sweden. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (3 studies): Two replicated, paired, controlled studies in Germany and the UK found that less frequently mown or unmown urban greenspaces had a higher species richness and diversity of butterflies and moths than more frequently mown areas. One replicated, site comparison study in Canada found that the management of road verges (and land under power lines) did not affect the species richness of butterflies. POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Abundance (3 studies): Two replicated studies (including one paired, controlled study) in the UK and Canada found that unmown public parks and road verges (and land under power lines) had a higher abundance of all adult butterflies and pearl crescent and northern pearl crescent butterflies than regularly mown areas, but the abundance of other butterflies on the road verges (and under power lines) was similar between mown and unmown areas in the second study. One study in Finland found that roadsides mown in late summer had more ringlet butterflies than those mown in mid-summer. Survival (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Poland found that road verges mown less frequently, or later in summer, had fewer dead butterflies killed by traffic than more frequently or earlier mown verges. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): One replicated, site comparison study in Sweden reported that less frequently mown urban grasslands were more frequently occupied by scarce copper butterflies than more frequently mown grasslands. One replicated, randomized, controlled study in the Netherlands found that butterflies were recorded on verges which were mowed once or twice a year and those which were not mowed, but on mowed verges butterflies were only recorded on those where hay was removed. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3841https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3841Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:45:31 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Plant parks, gardens and road verges with appropriate native species Eight studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of planting parks and gardens with appropriate native species. Seven were in the USA and one was in Germany. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (5 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (5 studies): Three of five replicated studies (including three paired, three controlled and two site comparison studies) in Germany and the USA found that gardens and road verges planted with native species had a greater species richness of butterfly and moth adults and caterpillars than gardens or verges with mixed or exclusively non-native plant species. The other two studies found that the species richness of adult butterflies was similar in areas planted with native or non-native flowers. POPULATION RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Abundance (4 studies): Two of three replicated studies (including two paired and two controlled studies) in the USA found that gardens planted with native species had a higher abundance of butterfly and moth caterpillars than gardens with mixed or exclusively non-native plant species. The third study found that the abundance of adult butterflies was similar in areas planted with native or non-native flowers. One replicated, randomized, controlled study in the USA found that when taller native milkweed species were planted, they had a higher abundance of monarch butterfly eggs and caterpillars than shorter milkweed species. Survival (2 studies): One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the USA found that the survival of pipevine swallowtail eggs and caterpillars was lower on California pipevine planted in gardens than in natural sites. The other study found that the survival of monarch butterfly caterpillars was similar on common milkweed planted in gardens and meadows. Condition (1 study): One replicated, randomized, controlled study in the USA found that the growth of monarch butterfly caterpillars was similar on eight different native milkweed species. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the USA found that monarch butterfly adults used common milkweed planted in gardens more than milkweed planted in meadows. The other study found that pipevine swallowtail adults used California pipevine planted in gardens less than in natural sites. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3842https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3842Tue, 05 Jul 2022 09:53:23 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Remove or change turbine lighting to reduce insect attraction We found no studies that evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of removing or changing turbine lighting to reduce insect attraction. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3843https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3843Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:06:37 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Change turbine colour to reduce insect attraction We found no studies that evaluated the effects of changing turbine colour to reduce attraction to butterflies and moths. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3844https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3844Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:07:53 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Reduce the size of surface features when prospecting for or extracting underground products One study evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of reducing the size of surface features when prospecting for or extracting underground products. This study was in Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Canada found that narrow corridors used for prospecting for oil had a lower species richness of butterflies than wide corridors, but were similar to undisturbed forest. POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Canada found that narrow corridors used for prospecting for oil had a lower abundance of butterflies than wide corridors, but were similar to undisturbed forest. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3845https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3845Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:09:11 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Provide training for land managers, farmers and farm advisers One study evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of providing training for land managers, farmers and farm advisers. The study was in the UK. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Behaviour change (1 study): One study in the UK reported that 82% of landowners that received advice about applying for the Rural Priorities agri-environment scheme submitted applications, there was a 90% application success rate, and >3,000 ha of farmland were managed for the marsh fritillary. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3846https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3846Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:24:55 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Raise awareness amongst the general public to promote conservation actions We found no studies that evaluated the effects of raising awareness amongst the general public to promote conservation actions for butterflies and moths. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3847https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3847Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:26:07 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Increase consideration of butterflies and moths in international, national and local conservation plans We found no studies that evaluated the effects of increasing the consideration of butterflies and moths in international, national and local conservation plans. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3848https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3848Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:27:13 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use signs and access restrictions to reduce disturbance We found no studies that evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of using signs and access restrictions to reduce disturbance. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3849https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3849Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:30:15 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restrict recreational activities to particular areas We found no studies that evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of restricting recreational activities to particular areas. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3850https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3850Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:31:29 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Design the route of roads to maximize habitat block size We found no studies that evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of designing the route of roads to maximize habitat block size. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3851https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3851Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:33:46 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Minimize road lighting to reduce insect attraction We found no studies that evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of minimizing road lighting to reduce insect attraction. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3852https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3852Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:34:54 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use infrastructure to reduce vehicle collision risk along roads One study evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of using infrastructure to reduce vehicle collision risk along roads. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Behaviour change (1 study): One controlled study in the USA reported that “altitude guide” netting, and poles topped with bright colours or flowers (attractive features), did not alter the behaviour of Oregon silverspot around roads. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3853https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3853Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:41:12 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restore or maintain species-rich grassland along road/railway verges Eight studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of restoring or maintaining species-rich grassland along road or railway verges. Three studies were in the USA and one was in each of Germany, the UK, Finland, Poland, and Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (6 studies): Four replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in Germany, the UK, the USA and Finland found that restored roadside prairies, verges sown with native wildflowers, with more butterfly species’ larval food plants, with more species of plants and with more plants in flower had a higher species richness and diversity of butterflies, day-flying moths, burnet moths and meadow-specialist moths than verges dominated by non-native vegetation or with fewer butterfly species’ larval food plants, fewer plant species, and fewer plants in flower. However, one of these studies also found that verges sown with more plant species did not have higher species richness of meadow-specialist butterflies. One replicated, site comparison study in Canada found that road verges and land under power lines managed by mowing once or twice a year, or not at all, had a similar species richness of butterflies to remnant prairies. One replicated, site comparison study in Poland found that wide road verges had a higher species richness of butterflies than narrow road verges. POPULATION RESPONSE (7 STUDIES) Abundance (5 studies): Two of three replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in the UK, the USA and Finland found that restored roadside prairies and verges sown with more butterfly species’ larval food plants had a greater abundance of butterflies and burnet moths than verges dominated by non-native vegetation or with fewer butterfly species’ larval food plants. However, one of these studies also found that verges with more plants in flower did not have a greater abundance of butterflies and burnet moths than verges with fewer plants in flower. The other study found that verges sown with more plant species did not have a greater abundance of meadow-specialist butterflies or moths. One replicated, site comparison study in Canada found that road verges and land under power lines managed by mowing once or twice a year, or not at all, had a similar abundance of butterflies to remnant prairies. One replicated, site comparison study in Poland found that wide road verges had a greater abundance of butterflies than narrow road verges. Survival (3 studies): One of two replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in the USA found that restored prairie road verges had a lower mortality risk for butterflies than verges dominated by non-native grasses. The other study found more dead butterflies and moths on roads with tall meadow verges than on roads with frequently mown, non-native, short grass verges or wooded verges. This study also found more dead butterflies and moths on roads with habitat in the central reservation than on roads without habitat in the central reservation. One replicated, site comparison study in Poland found that less frequently mown road verges, and verges mown later in the summer, had fewer dead butterflies than verges which were mown more frequently or earlier in the summer. Condition (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that monarch caterpillars living on road verges mown once or twice a year had a similar number of parasites to caterpillars living in mown and unmown prairies. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3854https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3854Tue, 05 Jul 2022 12:03:30 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Manage land under power lines for butterflies and moths Six studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of managing land under power lines for butterflies and moths. Two studies were in each of the USA and Finland, and one was in each of the UK and Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (3 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in Finland found that land under power lines managed by mechanical cutting had a higher species richness of butterflies than unmanaged land, and butterfly species richness was highest 2–4 years after scrub and trees were cleared. One replicated, site comparison study in Canada found that the species richness of butterflies was similar under power lines and on road verges mown once or twice a year, or left unmown. POPULATION RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Abundance (6 studies): One of two replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in Finland and Canada found that land under power lines managed by mechanical cutting had a higher abundance of butterflies than unmanaged land. The other study found that land under power lines and on road verges managed by mowing had a lower abundance of pearl crescent and northern pearl crescent butterflies, and a similar abundance of other butterflies, to those left unmown. Two of three site comparison studies (including two replicated studies) in the USA, the UK and Finland found that the time since management under power lines did not affect the abundance of Karner blue butterflies or small pearl-bordered fritillaries, but chequered skipper abundance was higher in areas cleared ≤2 years ago than in areas cut ≥4 years earlier. The other study found that power lines cleared of trees and scrub 2–4 years earlier had a higher abundance of butterflies than power lines cleared 1 year or 6–8 years earlier. Two site comparison studies in the USA found that land under power lines managed by cutting or herbicide application, and by mowing or cutting, had a similar abundance of Karner blue butterflies and six other butterfly species, but the abundance of frosted elfin was higher under power lines managed by mowing than those managed by cutting. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the UK reported that pearl-bordered fritillaries used areas under power lines where scrub had been cleared one or two years earlier, but not under power lines cleared three or more years ago. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3855https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidencejournal.com%2Factions%2F3855Tue, 05 Jul 2022 12:26:37 +0100
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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