Action Synopsis: Bird Conservation About Actions

Translocate megapodes

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Study locations

Key messages

A replicated study from Indonesia found that up to 78% of maleo Macrocephalon maleo eggs hatched after translocation, with higher success if eggs were reburied as they were found. There was only anecdotal evidence that the translocations increased local populations.


About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A replicated study on Sulawesi, Indonesia, in 1972-3 and 1978-9 (Mackinnon 1981) found that hatching rates for maleo Macrocephalon maleo eggs translocated from unprotected beaches to a protected nature reserve ranged from 41% (321 of 789 eggs translocated in 1972-3) to 78% (105 of 134 eggs translocated in 1978-9). Guards at the park reported larger numbers of maleo nesting after the second translocation, although this was not confirmed and it was not certain that any extra birds were the translocated individuals. In the second translocation, eggs were buried in the sand in the same position that they were found in (the top of the egg was marked with a cross before removal), whereas in the first experiment they were placed haphazardly in the sand. In addition, in the second translocation, once one chick from a clutch emerged, the others were dug out. It was found that those placed in the wrong orientation died, those buried too deep hatched but the chicks then died tunnelling to the surface. The highest success rates were with eggs buried approximately 25 cm deep (shallower than the 40-70 cm commonly seen in the wild).

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Williams, D.R., Child, M.F., Dicks, L.V., Ockendon, N., Pople, R.G., Showler, D.A., Walsh, J.C., zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Bird Conservation. Pages 137-281 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2020. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.


Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

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Bird Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Bird Conservation
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What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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