Introduce fragments of trees/shrubs: freshwater wetlands

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Study locations

Key messages

  • One study evaluated the effects, on vegetation, of introducing tree/shrub fragments to freshwater wetlands. The study was in the USA.








  • Survival (1 study): One study in a floodplain swamp clearing in the USA reported 12% overall survival of planted unrooted tree cuttings over two years. For two of four species, no monitored seedlings survived.

About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A study in 2007–2009 in a floodplain swamp restoration site in Wisconsin, USA (Thomsen et al. 2012) reported 12% survival of planted tree cuttings over two years. All surviving individuals were willows Salix spp. No cottonwood Populus deltoides or red osier dogwood Cornus stolonifera cuttings survived at monitored points – although some surviving cottonwood cuttings were noted elsewhere in the site (not quantified). Methods: Fresh (<2-week-old), unrooted tree cuttings were planted into 16 plots in a floodplain swamp restoration site (a clearing created by a storm). Cottonwood cuttings were planted in May 2007. Black willow Salix nigra, sandbar willow Salix exigua and dogwood cuttings were planted in April 2008. All plots had been cleared of invasive reed canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea and disked in November 2006. Herbicide was then applied regularly through to November 2008). Survival was monitored for 28 cuttings situated at survey points.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Taylor N.G., Grillas P., Smith R.K. & Sutherland W.J. (2021) Marsh and Swamp Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions to Conserve Marsh and Swamp Vegetation. Conservation Evidence Series Synopses. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

All the journals searched for all synopses

Marsh and Swamp Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Marsh and Swamp Conservation
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Marsh and Swamp Conservation - Published 2021

Marsh and Swamp Synopsis

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