Remove litter from marine and freshwater environments
Overall effectiveness category No evidence found (no assessment)
Number of studies: 0
Background information and definitions
Litter can enter marine and freshwater environments through a multitude of pathways, such as vessels, storms, beaches, fishing etc., and can accumulate and persist for long periods (Pham et al. 2014, Andrady 2015). Litter can negatively affect marine and freshwater mammals through entanglement, ingestion, and the introduction of chemical contaminants (Kühn et al. 2015). Removing litter from the environment may reduce the risk of harm to mammals. However, this would not address the source or cause of the threat and can only be considered a temporary measure. Litter removal from aquatic environments can also be challenging, especially in remote or inaccessible areas.
For an intervention related to recovering derelict fishing gear, see Recover lost or discarded fishing gear.
Andrady A.L. (2015) Persistence of plastic litter in the oceans. Pages 57-72 in: Bergmann M., Gutow L. & Klages M. (eds.) Marine Anthropogenic Litter. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
Kühn S., Bravo Rebolledo E.L. & van Franeker J.A. (2015) Deleterious effects of litter on marine life. Pages 75–116 in: Bergmann M., Gutow L. & Klages M. (eds.) Marine Anthropogenic Litter. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
Pham C.K., Ramirez-Llodra E., Alt C.H.S., Amaro T., Bergmann M., Canals M., Company J.B., Davies J., Duineveld G., Galgani F., Howell K.L., Huvenne V.A.I., Isidro E., Jones D.O.B., Lastras G., Morato T., Gomes-Pereira J.N., Purser A., Stewart H., Tojeira I., Tubau X., Van Rooij D. & Tyler P.A. (2014) Marine litter distribution and density in European seas, from the shelves to deep basins. PLOS ONE, 9, e95839.