Deter predation of livestock by mammals by having people close by to reduce human-wildlife conflict

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Study locations

Key messages

  • One study evaluated the effects of deterring predation of livestock by mammals by having people close by to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in Kenya.





  • Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): One study in Kenya recorded fewer attacks by predators on livestock in bomas when people were also present but the presence of people did not reduce predator attacks on grazing herds.

About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A study in 2001–2005 of bushland and savanna across Laikipia and neighbouring districts, Kenya (Woodroffe et al. 2007) found that when livestock in bomas were accompanied by people, fewer animals were attacked by carnivores, but there was no similar effect for grazing herds. Livestock kept in bomas overnight were less likely to be attacked when more herders were present. Presence of herders did not reduce the risk of attack for herds grazing away from bomas in the daytime (results presented as odds ratios). The 502 grazing herds were accompanied by an average of 2.1 herders. At 491 bomas, an average of 11.3 people were present. The study documented 105 attacks by spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta, 96 by leopards Panthera pardus, 44 by African wild dogs Lycaon pictus, 35 by lions Panthera leo and 19 by cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus. From January 2001 to June 2005, eighteen local staff verified reports of livestock lost to predation and gathered data on animal husbandry practices used. Attacked herds or bomas were compared to nearby herds (median 656 m away) or bomas (median 323 m away) that had not been attacked.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Littlewood, N.A., Rocha, R., Smith, R.K., Martin, P.A., Lockhart, S.L., Schoonover, R.F., Wilman, E., Bladon, A.J., Sainsbury, K.A., Pimm S. and Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Terrestrial Mammal Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions for terrestrial mammals excluding bats and primates. Synopses of Conservation Evidence Series. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Where has this evidence come from?

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Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation - Published 2020

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

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