Provide educational or other training programmes about the marine environment to improve behaviours towards marine invertebrates

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Key messages

  • One study examined the effects of providing educational or other training programmes about the marine environment on subtidal benthic invertebrate populations. The study took place in Hong Kong.





  • Behaviour change (1 study): One replicated, before-and-after survey study in Hong Kong found that a conservation education programme on the Asian horseshoe crab in secondary schools significantly increased the students’ behaviour towards Asian horseshoe crab conservation.

About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A replicated, before-and-after study in 2009–2016 of 96 secondary schools in Hong Kong (Kwan et al. 2017) found that a 14-month-long conservation education programme improved students’ behaviour towards Asian horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus conservation. The programme increased students’ behaviour towards horseshoe crab conservation by 21%. This included a 43% increase in students promoting horseshoe crab conservation to relatives and friends, a 5% increase in students themselves promoting horseshoe crab conservation, and a 15% increase in their willingness-to-pay for conserving Asian horseshoe crabs. The programme also improved their general biology and ecology knowledge of Asian horseshoe crabs by 26% and their perception and awareness towards horseshoe crab conservation by 17%. Between 2009 and 2016, the “Juvenile Horseshoe Crab Rearing Program” took place in 96 schools. Teams of students reared juvenile crabs for 14 months before releasing them into nursery grounds. Before the start and after the end of each programme, students were asked to respond to a set questionnaire regarding their behaviour towards horseshoe crab conservation, knowledge of horseshoe crab biology/ecology and their perception and awareness of horseshoe crab conservation. A total of 1,391 students responded.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Lemasson, A.J., Pettit, L.R., Smith, R.K. & Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Subtidal Benthic Invertebrate Conservation. Pages 635-732 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2020. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.

Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

All the journals searched for all synopses

Subtidal Benthic Invertebrate Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Subtidal Benthic Invertebrate Conservation
Subtidal Benthic Invertebrate Conservation

Subtidal Benthic Invertebrate Conservation - Published 2020

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