Translocate habitat-forming (biogenic) species - Translocate reef-forming corals
Overall effectiveness category Likely to be beneficial
Number of studies: 2
Background information and definitions
Marine biogenic habitats are habitats created by the occurrence of a suite of specific marine species that form a new complex environment for other species to live in, and which can locally promote subtidal benthic invertebrate biodiversity. Such habitats include coral reefs, oyster reefs, mussel beds, and kelp forests (Jones et al. 1994). Restoring these habitats where they have been either degraded or lost can be achieved by translocating new individuals of the biogenic species naturally occurring elsewhere, for instance from another healthy non-degraded site (Fariñas-Franco & Roberts 2014; Hughes et al. 2008). This technique can also be used to create new biogenic habitats where they do not naturally occur (Nelson et al. 2004).
Note that here, data on associated invertebrates are reported, but not on the translocated species itself, which are reported in “Species management – Translocate species”. However, as the outcomes of translocating biogenic species can vary largely with the species and habitat that they form, studies have been grouped by habitat and/or wider taxonomic group (e.g: reefs or beds formed by molluscs such as oysters, mussels, snails; meadows made by seagrass; forests made by kelp; or reefs made by corals). Evidence from transplantation studies from hatchery-reared biogenic species are summarised under “Habitat restoration and creation – Transplant habitat-forming (biogenic) species” and under “Species management – Transplant/release captive-bred or hatchery-reared species”.
Fariñas-Franco J.M. & Roberts D. (2014) Early faunal successional patterns in artificial reefs used for restoration of impacted biogenic habitats. Hydrobiologia, 727,75–94.
Hughes D.J., Poloczanska E.S. & Dodd J. (2008) Survivorship and tube growth of reef‐building Serpula vermicularis (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) in two Scottish sea lochs. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 18, 117–129.
Jones C.G., Lawton J.H. & Shachak M. (1994) Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Pages 130–147 in: Ecosystem Management. Springer, New York, NY.
Nelson KA., Leonard L.A., Posey M.H., Alphin T.D. & Mallin M.A. (2004) Using transplanted oyster (Crassostrea virginica) beds to improve water quality in small tidal creeks: a pilot study. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 298, 347–368.
Supporting evidence from individual studies
A replicated, controlled study in 2000–2002 in five coral reef sites in Tayabas Bay, Philippines (Yap 2009) found that plots with translocated corals developed higher invertebrate species richness than plots without corals, 9–27 months after translocation. After coral translocation, invertebrate species richness was higher in plots with corals (7–8 species) than in nearby and more distant plots without corals (3–6 species), but was lower than at the source site where the corals originated (10 species). Overall, 83-95% of translocated corals survived. Each of four sites of rocky seabed had eighteen 1 m2 plots: six with translocated corals, six nearby without corals (interspersed with transplanted coral plots), and six 100 m away without corals. Between April 2000 and November 2001, three coral species were translocated from a nearby pristine reef (source site) to each translocated plot: Acropora palifera (2/plot), Porites cylindrica (2/plot), and Porites lobata (3/plot). In July 2002 (9–27 months after translocation), invertebrate species (excluding corals) were recorded during visual census by divers in all experimental plots, and in six plots at the source site.Study and other actions tested
A replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in 2010–2012 of nine plots in a restored coral reef off Santiago Island, northwestern Philippines, South China Sea (dela Cruz et al. 2014) found that over the 19 months following translocation of corals, invertebrate species richness increased similarly at sites with and without translocated corals, abundance increased more at sites with than without corals, and community composition remained similar across all plots. Before translocation, all plots had similar species richness (0.3–0.5 species/plot), abundance (0.3–1.2/plot), and community composition (community data presented as graphical analyses). After 19 months, species richness had increased in all plots and was similar in plots with corals (3.0–3.3) and without (2.9). Abundance had increased in all plots but was higher in plots with corals (16–26) than without (3). Community composition remained similar in all plots after 19 months. After 19 months, 68–89% of translocated corals had survived. Increases in richness and abundance observed in plots without translocated corals were considered by authors to be due to spill-over effects from plots with translocated corals. Three clusters (50 m apart) of three plots (16 m2; 5 m apart), were used for coral reef restoration. In each cluster, staghorn corals, Acropora intermedia and Acropora pulchra, were translocated to two plots (25 fragments/species in one, 50 fragments/species in the other), and one plot was left without corals. In July 2010 (before translocation), July 2011 (12 months after translocation), and February 2012 (19 months after translocation) divers visually identified and counted invertebrates belonging to six genera (see paper for details) in all plots.Study and other actions tested