Use non-toxic antifouling coatings on surfaces
Overall effectiveness category No evidence found (no assessment)
Number of studies: 0
Background information and definitions
Antifouling paints and coatings are commonly used to manage biofouling (organisms that can attach to hard surfaces) on aquaculture structures (cages, nets, ponds) and other hard anthropogenic structures. However, some antifouling paints and coatings are highly toxic to marine organisms. Trybutyltin (TBT) for instance was widely used on vessels but found to be highly harmful to marine invertebrates, such as the dog whelk Nucella lapillus (Alzieu 2000; Gibbs et al. 2009) and so the use of this substance was banned (for evidence on the restriction of TBT, see “Threat: Pollution – Restrict the use of tributyltin or other toxic antifouling coatings”). Using non-toxic antifouling coatings instead of more traditional coatings may reduce the risk of toxicity to subtidal benthic invertebrates (Magin et al. 2010).
Alzieu C. (2000) Impact of tributyltin on marine invertebrates. Ecotoxicology, 9, 71-76.
Gibbs P.E., Bryan G.W., Pascoe P.L. & Burt G.R. (2009) The use of the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus, as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 67, 507.
Magin C.M., Cooper S.P. & Brennan A.B. (2010). Non-toxic antifouling strategies. Materials Today, 13, 36-44.