Action Synopsis: Bird Conservation About Actions

Create beetle banks

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Study locations

Key messages

  • A small UK study found that a site with beetle banks had increasing populations of rare or declining species, although several other interventions were used on this site. A literature review from the UK found that grey partridge Perdix perdix populations were far larger on sites with beetle banks and other interventions than on other farms. Two replicated studies from the UK also investigated population-level effects: one found that no bird species were strongly associated with beetle banks; the second found no relationship between beetle banks and grey partridge population density trends.
  • A UK literature review found that two bird species nested in beetle banks and that some species were more likely to forage in them than others. A study in the UK found that one of two species used beetle banks more than expected. The other used them less than other agri-environment options.


About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A 2000 literature review from the UK (Aebischer et al. 2000) found that the populations of grey partridge Perdix perdix was 600% higher on farms with conservation measures aimed at partridges in place, compared to farms without these measures. Measures included the provision of conservation headlands, planting cover crops, using set-aside and creating beetle banks.

    Study and other actions tested
  2. A study of different set-aside crops at Allerton Research and Educational Trust Loddington farm, Leicestershire, (Murray et al. 2002) found that Eurasian skylarks Alauda arvensis, but not yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella used beetle banks more than expected compared to availability.  Skylarks used them significantly more than unmanaged set-aside, broad-leaved crops and other habitats, while yellowhammers used them significantly less than cereal and set-aside with ‘wild bird cover’.  Field margin and midfield set-aside strips were sown with kale-based and cereal-based mixtures for ‘wild bird cover’, and ‘beetle banks’.  Other habitat types were: unmanaged set-aside, cereal (wheat, barley), broad-leaved crop (beans, rape) and ‘other’ habitats.  Thirteen skylark and 15 yellowhammer nests with chicks between 3-10 days old were observed. Foraging habitat used by the adults was recorded for 90 minutes during three periods of the day.  This study is also discussed in ‘Plant wild bird seed /cover and Provide (or retain) set-aside areas in farmland’.

    Study and other actions tested
  3. A small replicated study from May-June in 1992-8 in Leicestershire, England (Stoate 2002), found that the abundance of nationally declining songbirds and species of conservation concern significantly increased on a 3 km2 site where beetle banks were created (alongside several other interventions), although there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and three control sites. Numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citronella). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47% (eight species increased, four decreased). The other interventions employed were: ‘Manage hedges to benefit wildlife’, ‘Plant nectar flower mixture/wildflower strips’, ‘Plant wild bird seed cover strips’, ‘Provide supplementary food’, ‘Control predators’ and ‘Reduce pesticide or herbicide use generally’.

    Study and other actions tested
  4. A replicated study in 1999 and 2003 on 256 arable and pastoral fields across 84 farms in East Anglia and the West Midlands, England (Stevens & Bradbury 2006), found that none of 12 species of farmland bird were strongly associated (either positively or negatively) with beetle banks. The species analysed were skylark Alauda arvensis, corn bunting Miliaria calandra, lapwing Vanellus vanellus, yellow wagtail Motacilla flava, chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, dunnock Prunella modularis, greenfinch Carduelis chloris, linnet C. cannabina, reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus, tree sparrow Passer montanus, whitethroat Sylvia communis and yellowhammer E. citrinella. This study describes several other interventions, discussed in ‘Leave headlands in fields unsprayed (conservation headlands)’; ‘Leave uncropped, cultivated margins or plots, including lapwing and stone curlew plots’; ‘Leave overwinter stubbles’; ‘Plant grass buffer strips/margins around arable or pasture fields’; ‘Create uncultivated margins around intensive arable or pasture fields’; ‘Plant wild bird seed or cover mixture’; ‘Provide or retain set-aside areas in farmland’; ‘Pay farmers to cover the costs of conservation measures’ and ‘Reduce pesticide or herbicide use generally’.

    Study and other actions tested
  5. A 2007 UK literature review (Stoate & Moorcroft 2007) describes studies that found grey partridge Perdix perdix and Eurasian skylarks Alauda arvensis nesting in beetle banks. One study also found that skylarks were more likely than yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella to forage in beetle banks. This study is also discussed in ‘Leave uncropped, cultivated margins or plots, including lapwing and stone curlew plots’, ‘Plant grass buffer strips/margins around arable or pasture fields’ and ‘Create skylark plots’.

    Study and other actions tested
  6. A replicated site comparison study on 1,031 agricultural sites across England in 2004-8 (Ewald et al. 2010) found that grey partridge Perdix perdix overwinter survival was significantly and positively correlated with the presence of beetle banks in 2007-8. Across all years there was a positive relationship with the ratio of young to old birds. There were no relationships with brood size or year-on-year density changes. This study describes the effects of several other interventions, discussed in the relevant sections.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Williams, D.R., Child, M.F., Dicks, L.V., Ockendon, N., Pople, R.G., Showler, D.A., Walsh, J.C., zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Bird Conservation. Pages 137-281 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2020. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.


Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

All the journals searched for all synopses

Bird Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Bird Conservation
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust