Import spat and/or eggs to aquaculture facilities rather than juveniles and adults to reduce the risk of introducing hitchhiking species
Overall effectiveness category No evidence found (no assessment)
Number of studies: 0
Background information and definitions
The expanding aquaculture industry has led to the accidental introduction of diseases, and non-native and other problematic species into the wild marine environment (Arechavaia-Lopez et al. 2013; Bax et al. 2003; Campbell & Hewitt 2008; Manchester & Bullock 2000). There, they can impact on native subtidal benthic invertebrate species through predation, competition for resources (food & space), contamination (for pathogens and diseases), or hybridization (through reproduction) (Bishop et al. 2010; Fitridge et al. 2012). In aquaculture, importing juveniles (young adults) or adults into farming facilities is a common practice, but can lead to the accidental release of non-native or problematic species that hitchhiked on/in them during transport. By importing spat (very young shellfish, usually mussels or oysters) and/or eggs instead, the risk of transporting and releasing these hitchhikers can potentially be reduced.
Arechavaia-Lopez P., Sanchez-Jerez P., Bayle-Sempere J.T., Uglem I. & Mladineo I. (2013) Reared fish. Farmed escapees and wild fish stockes – a triangle of pathogen transmission of concern to Mediterranean aquaculture management. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 3, 153–161.
Bax N., Williamson A., Aguero M., Gonzalez E. & Geeves W. (2003) Marine invasive alien species: a threat to global biodiversity. Marine Policy, 27, 313–323.
Bishop M.J., Krassoi F.R., McPherson R.G., Brown K.R., Summerhayes S.A., Wilkie E.M. & O’Connor W.A. (2010) Change in wild-oyster assemblages of Port Stephens, NSW, Australia, since commencement of non-native Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture. Marine and Freshwater Research, 61, 714–723.
Campbell M.L. & Hewitt C.L. (2008) Introduced marine species risk assessment – aquaculture. Pages 121–133 in: M.G. Bondad-Reantaso; J.R. Arthur. & R.P. Subasinghe (eds). Understanding and Applying Risk Analysis in Aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 519. Rome, FAO.
Fitridge I., Dempster T., Guenther J. & de Nys R., (2012) The impact and control of biofouling in marine aquaculture: a review. Biofouling, 28, 649–669.
Manchester S.J. & Bullock J.M. (2000) The impacts of non‐native species on UK biodiversity and the effectiveness of control. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 845–864.